Category Archives: WEAVING

Information,tips and techniques about weaving, warps, looms and textiles.

Viking Textiles: aa042197

It is commonly thought that Viking clothing was rough “sack-cloth”. Not so. Viking textiles influenced and were influenced by the many countries in which they travelled. Viking Cloths have described as layers of simple but well fitted garments, using wool, linen, horsehair and dog hair.

Vikings used fibers and yarns that were readily available in their area. In England and Sweden they had access to linen. Silk was also used in the ninth century. In Scandinavia, very fine cloth with counts of 14×11 and 24×12 threads per cm. have been found. Viking fabrics were often made of worsted wool in twill patterns. It can be assumed that Vikings produced fine fulled cloth as fulling mills dating to the later Viking period are found in Britain.

Fabrics were woven on warp-weighted looms. These looms consisted of a roller beam on top of a heavy frame and shafts of heddles that raise and lower the warp threads. The warp was attached to the roller beam and held under tension by weights consisting of soapstone or Icelandic volcanic stones with natural holes. Stones were attached to the bundles of warp threads. As the cloth was woven, it was rolled up onto the beam. It was difficult to produce even edges in weaving because the weighted warp hung freely. The warp-weighted loom later was replaced by the more efficient horizontal loom, that had a shedding mechanism operated by foot pedals (similar to today’s floor looms).
warp weighted loom

Wool was spun using a drop spindle made of wood or bone, and weighted with a whorl of bone, wood, clay, stone or metal. After spinning, the yarn was dyed using natural dyestuffs. The more wealthy Viking could afford brighter and more colourful dyes. Black dye was produced by making a mixture of cochineal (red), woad (blue) and weld (yellow). White was obtained by bleaching the yarn with wood ash.

Tablet weaving was also popular during Viking times. The tablets are made of flat squares of wood or bone with holes in each corner. These are threaded with the warp with the warp yarn and held in the hands. By turning the cards forwards or backwards by half or quarter turns, the warp threads are raised or lowered. Gold wire and colourful threads were used in the weft, producing intricate patterns.

Tablet Woven Madder Root Belt
Tablet Woven Madder Root Belt

Look for plant dyed tablet woven belts in my Etsy Shop.
The Middle Ages in Finland were influenced by the Vikings and ancient outfits. Threads were spindle spun. A typical dress required 30 kilometres of single-ply thread. Strong colours were preferred. Birch leaves were used for yellow. Red came from the roots of northern bedstraw. Blue from dyer’s woad, and green’s from blood-coloured cortinarius and juniper berries. It is possible that mushroom dyes may also have been used for dyeing their clothing.
Naalbinding Hats
Naalbinding Hats Mittens

Blue Skirts Golden Belts
Finland’s Viking Age Textiles

Viking Ships
A visit to the Viking Museum, includes photos of Viking ships and warp-weighted looms.

Viking Museum at Borg

Female Viking Dress is reconstructed from remains found at Birka.

Nalbinding

Nalbinding Pattern for an Iphone bag

Paivatar Tablet Weaving Cards
Paivatar Tablet Weaving Cards

Please check my PaivatarYarn Shop on Etsy for my new tablet weaving cards.

Tablet Woven Pattern
Card Woven Edging
Fungi Dyes

Nalbinding Books
Nalbinding – What in the World Is That?
Nålbindning – The easiest clearest ever guide!
Nalbinding Made Easy
Viking: Dress Clothing Garment

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Needles for naalbinding,Set of 4 needles with case, Nalbinding needle, knitting

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Vintage Grant Hand Weaving Supply Company Tabletop Loom; 60's to 70's

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Floor Weaving Loom

$250.00 (1 Bid)
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Flax Weaving: aa041497

Of all natural fibers available, I think flax qualifies as truly a miracle fiber. It is environmentally friendly and is a renewable resource. All of the plant can be used. The seeds can be eaten or used to produce linseed oil. The fiber is processed into yarn and woven into cloth. The term “linen” is used for products that have been made from flax fiber such as linen fabric or tablecloths.

flax
Flax or linen fiber is strong, absorbs moisture, has no allergenic properties and softens with continued use. It has a wide variety of applications. It is used in clothing, furnishings, household fabrics, water buckets, yarn and rope.

Flax has been grown and used for cloth since 8000 B.C. Textiles found with the Dead Sea scrolls were identified as being linen (flax). The linen textiles found in the Qumran Cave 1 in 1949 were used as scroll wrappers, protective covers for jars and linen cord.

Flax growing was an important industry in Flanders for many centuries until the cotton industry and mechanization provided competition.
Flax is still grown in many parts of the world, such as Ireland, western Europe and Russia.

Textiles: Qumran Caves

Photos of linen cloth found in the Qumran Caves, that are thought to be wrappers for some of the Dead Sea scrolls.

From Flower to Textile
The Libeco site describes the process of turning the flax plant into linen fabric.

Irish Linen
Irish spinners and weavers create delicately woven cloth in intricate designs.

Flax Council of Canada
The Flax Council of Canada presents some interesting uses for flax.

Part 2 – Growing and Processing Flax
After harvesting, the flax fiber must go through several processes before it is transformed into the cloth that graces your dinner table.

Here are a few photos of some fabulous linen towels that were recently sent to me by Maureen.

Linen Sauna Towel
Woven by an elderly Swedish woman.

Grace’s Towel – Linen Sampler

Woven by Grace Tonseth, a 14 year-old girl living and being homeschooled on a farm in eastern Washington. She also raises sheep, sheers them, cards, spins and weaves the wool and sews her own clothes!

Linen Weaving

Linen from flax seed to woven cloth
Learn about flax cultivation, processing and spinning, natural and synthetic dyeing, and weaving and finishing linen cloth.
UK: Linen from flax seed..

How to weave linens
UK: How to Weave Linens

Reflections From A Flaxen Past : For Love of Lithuanian Weaving
Flax tools and faces from archival photographs; textile images and patterns.
UK: Reflections from a Flaxen Past

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Vintage Grant Hand Weaving Supply Company Tabletop Loom; 60's to 70's

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Floor Weaving Loom

$250.00 (1 Bid)
End Date: Monday Feb-17-2020 6:07:54 PST
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Persian Carpets: aa040797

Handmade carpets have been made throughout the history of civilization. Some of the oldest carpets discovered date back to the 7th century B.C. Major Persian rug weaving areas were in Turkey, Pakistan and Iran.

Weaving techniques were passed on through families. Regions and villages had their own unique styles and colours of carpets.

Carpets were woven on two types of looms. The horizontal loom was typically used by nomadic people. The vertical looms were primarily used in the larger cities.

Two types of knots are generally used in Persian carpets.
ghiordes
The Ghiordes or Turkish knot is looped around two warp ends. Finger hanks or bobbins of various colours are picked up as needed and passed through the warp thread, over 2 warp threads and back under the second warp thread. The weaver then cuts the thread after each knot is tightened.
seneh
sehna knot
The Seneh (or Sehna) knots loops around one warp thread and protrudes into the next warp thread. Because the knots are tied onto each warp thread, it gives a more even distribution of pile for the rug. Using a finger hank or bobbin of yarn, it is passed under a warp thread, over the same warp thread and then under the next warp thread. The yarn is then cut.

After a row of knots is tied, a weft thread is woven across the width of the rug, securing the knots into place. The number of weft threads woven, can vary depending on depending on the length of pile and thickness desired. Knots are not tied up to the selvage, rather a technique called Argatch is used to strengthen the edges of the carpet. Extra picks of weft thread are woven to fill in the space of the missing knots.

After the rug is completed, it is cut again to produce an even pile. The carpet is then brushed to open up the pile.

Cotton yarn is generally used for the warp. The weft is made of wool, silk or mohair.

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Navajo Rugs: aa031097

Native American Navajo rugs were influenced by the Pueblo Indians and by the Spanish explorers.

Navajo rugs are handwoven on an upright loom. The wool is handspun and dyed using natural dyestuffs. Black or grey came from the natural colours of the sheep. Yellow was made from turnip roots or sage. Senna gave a rust colour and walnut was used for brown.

Navajo rugs are hand manipulated. Each thread is woven by passing it by hand over and under the warp threads. A few of the techniques, that are also common to other tapestries are described.
slit
In the Slit technique, each colour is woven back and forth, separately. This is generally used in small sections as a slit is created in the rug.
warp interlock
Two colours can also meet by wrapping around the same warp thread. The Warp Interlock creates a jagged edge and is used in diagonal joins.
weft interlocka
In the Weft Interlock, the two adjoining colours wrap around each other between two warp threads. It is used on long vertical joins.


Diagonal (or other) shapes are woven using a combination of interlocking techniques. The steepness of the diagonal determines when to change to the next colour.

D. Y. Begay described the process of weaving a Navajo rug. How the sheep are shorn, the wool is carded and spun on a Navajo spindle and dyed using natural dyes such as mistletoe fungus found on juniper trees, yellow from Chamizo stems and flowers, and rose colours from the prickly pear cactus fruit. She also uses black beans, walnuts, cedar bark, blood roots, onion skins and cochineal for her rich palette of colours.
[http://www.amug.org/%7Edybegay/weavprp.htm]

Navajo weavers today such asLena Ateneare teaching their craft to their children, hoping to pass their knowledge on before it is lost forever. She describes her life as a weaver and her respect for the loom.
[http://www.math.utah.edu/~clemens/Stories/Lena.html]

Fleecing Navajo Weavers
The popularity of Navajo rug designs has allowed some fair trade businesses to thrive while Navajo weavers suffer. Thousands of Diné (Navajo) weavers face formidable competition as their historic patterns, increasingly reproduced abroad, are imported and sold via sophisticated marketing schemes, including hundreds of websites on the internet.

Navajo Women Artists in Resistance are members of the sovereign Dineh Nation. Their website describes their desire to protect their traditonal lands, language and culture of weaving, silversmithing and agriculture.

Sadie Curtis Navajo Weaver

Navajo Weaving Books

The Goat in the Rug
Geraldine is a goat, and Glenmae, a Navajo weaver. One day, Glenmae decides to weave Geraldine into a rug.

Blanket Weaving in the Southwest
A masterful classification scheme for southwestern textiles—and a book that establishes an essential baseline for understanding craft production.

One Hundred Years of Navajo Rugs
Designed for the general reader, museum goer, or collector, it offers a guide to identifying and dating rugs by means of weaving materials. Wool quality, the author explains, is the single most important clue to the date of a rug’s manufacture. Rodee also provides historical background on the great Navajo weavers and especially on the traders who bought rugs from the Navajo.

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Vintage Grant Hand Weaving Supply Company Tabletop Loom; 60's to 70's

$135.00
End Date: Thursday Mar-5-2020 17:30:16 PST
Buy It Now for only: $135.00
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Floor Weaving Loom

$250.00 (1 Bid)
End Date: Monday Feb-17-2020 6:07:54 PST
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