Category Archives: TEXTILES

Miscellaneous information about textiles.

Plant Dyes and Your Health

Did you know that textiles dyed with plant dyes can be good for you?
As a part of my personal search for a healthier lifestyle, I am on an ongoing quest to learn more about natural plant dyes, their uses and how to achieve the range of colours that plant dyes can produce. In this age of mass production, I fear that we are losing much of the knowledge that our ancestors had about how to make things using the raw materials that nature provides.

In my latest googling, I made a remarkable discovery (well, remarkable to me at least, as I had never heard of this before) Most natural plant dyes are anti-microbial. When yarns or fabrics are dyed using natural dyes and come into contact with bacteria, they prevent their spread.

Amazing, right? It is amazing to think that our ancestors who made and wore natural plant dyed fabrics, before the days of antibiotics or even much knowledge about germs, were also giving themselves protection against the spread of disease- Naturally.

Nature looks after us. The trees and plants clean our air. Roots of some plants clean up the soil, removing hazardous materials. Plants provide humans and other animals food to live on. Plants provide us with clothing (such as flax and cotton) Before the age of pharmaceuticals, plants were used as medicines. Plants also add colour to our clothing. And in addition to that, the natural dyes from the plants reduced the spread of harmful bacteria.

Yet here we are, purposefully destroying our whole eco-system that has sustained us for thousands of years.
We are becoming increasingly aware of the harmful effects of fossil fuels, of the use of plastics that pollute our rivers and streams, of the destruction of the rain forests. The problem seems insurmountable as our planet struggles with climate change.

I think to tackle part of this plastics problem, we have to start small, with the positive things that we can do within our own environment. Saying no to plastic bags, re-using and recycling whenever possible. Making changes to our buying habits. Shopping for locally produced foods and materials. Read labels – don’t buy products that contain plastics, acrylics, polyester.

As part of this, I think that textile crafters can play a huge part in this – choosing not to use yarns and fabrics that contain plastic content. Buy natural wools, cottons, linen, hemp, alpaca, mohair, silk and other natural fibres instead. Say no to superwash yarns. And in helping to revive the traditional crafts and skills of textiles, working with fibres, spinning, weaving, natural dyes. I know that it is currently quite difficult to source and find natural wools but a few are still available. Yes, clothes may need a bit of extra care when washing, but then you know that your washing machine is not flushing micro-plastics into our water systems.

Clothing is one of our major commodities and fabric and clothing manufacturing is a high polluter. If demand for plastics and synthetic fibres diminish, the industry will change. Knit, crochet, weave and wear yarns and clothing that have been dyed with natural plant materials rather than harmful synthetic dyes. Experiment with using and making natural dyes. Some of these dye plants can be found in your kitchen – such as promegranate peels, onion skins, turmeric and other spices. If you have space, plant some trees and a dye garden. The bonus of using natural materials rather than synthetics is, that your clothing will also provide you with some protection against diseases, reducing the need for antibiotic use.

Natural dyes are a good thing. In my research, I came across numerous research studies that have been done in the past several years about dye plants and their effectiveness against harmful microbes such as:
Escherichia coli
Sarcina lutea
Proteus vulgaris
Bacillus subtilis
Klebsiella pneumoniae
Staphylocccus aures
Enterococcus faecalis
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Candida albicans

Researchers have been investigating the anti-microbial properties of plant dyes in order to develop commercial applications to produce textiles for use in hospital and clinical situations to help reduce the harmful spread of bacteria.
Some of the plants were more effective against different bacteria than others. Also stronger dye concentrations had higher microbial effects. I suppose that if you wore clothing of different colours and dyed with different dye plants, there might be a synergistic effect, giving you better microbe resistance. Also perhaps overdye techniques could be used with the dyes, producing different colours as well as added resistance.
In addition to confirming that many natural dye plants have bacteria killing properties, they also tested the washability of the plant dyes and found that the dyes were wash fast and the anti-microbial effects did not wash out of the textiles when they were properly mordanted.
Potassium aluminum sulphate (Alum) was used in most of the studies as a mordant.

Some of the natural plant dyes that have been tested with positive results for their antimicrobial resistance are:

LATIN NAME – PART OF PLANT/COLOUR – COMMON NAME (links to Dye Recipes)
Rhamnus petiolaris –  Fruit Yellow-orange – Persian berries, Buckthorn bark
Juglans regia –  Green fruit- peel Brown – Walnut
Laurus nobilis –  Leaf, Light yellow –  Bay tree
Erica manipuliflora –  Above ground – Brown, yellow, – Heather
Vitex   Leaf Light brown, greenish –  Chaste Tree
Juniperus foetidissima – Leaf, Light yellow, -Juniper
Juniperus excelsa – Leaf , Light yellow, – Greek Juniper
Berberis vulgaris – Fruit, Yellow-Orange –  Barberry
Lawsonia inermis  -Leaf Red, Brown -Henna
Agrimonia eupatoria – Leaf, Yellow  – Agrimony
Cistus creticus –  Leaf, Brown Yellow – Cretan rockrose
Reseda lutea-  Flower, Yellow –  Weld
Sambucus nigra – Leaf, Yellow – Elderberry
Punica granatum – Fruit peel, Yellow -Pomegranate
Eucalyptus globulus  – Leaf  – Eucalyptus
Matricaria chamomilla  – Flower  – camomile
Pinus brutia –  Bark , Brown – Pine tree
Platanus orientalis – Bark , Red, Sycamore –  Oriental Plane
Cartamus tinctorius -Flower, Yellow ,- Safflower
Salvia officinalis ,Leaf  – Yellow-orange, green –  Sage
Verbascum orientale – Leaf, yellow – Mullein
Allium cepa – Dry outer leaf, Yellow-orange – Onion
Rhus coriaria – Flower ,Yellow, brown  – Sumac
Curcuma longa – Flower, Yellow – Turmeric
Olea europaea – Leaf , Yellow-green –  Olive tree
Quercus infectoria – Oak galls
Acacia Catechu –  Cutch
Rheum Emodi – Himalayan rhubarb
Rubia cordifolia –  Indian madder
Rumex maritimus – Golden dock
Lithospermum purpureocaeruleum -Shikonin –  Purple Gromwell
Alkanna tinctoria – Alkanet
Haematoxylum campechianum – heartwood, blues, grey, brown, black – Logwood
Butea monosperma – Flowers, yellow – Bastard Teak Flame of the Forest
Rheum australe – Rhizomes, oranges, yellow – Himalayan Rhubarb

With winter and ‘flu season coming up, perhaps it is time to knit a scarf using naturally dyed yarns?

References
Antimicrobial Activities of Some Natural Dyes and Dyed Wool Yarn
In this study researchers tested 25 natural dye plants for their effectiveness against micro-organisms.
Punica granatum (Pomegranate peels) Berberis vulgaris (Barberry), Agrimonia eupatoria (Agrimony), Rhus coriaria (Sumac) were effective against all bacteria. Sarcina lutea, Bacillus subtilis, MRSA and Enterococcus faecalis were sensitive to almost all dye extracts even at low concentrations. The dyed wool material tested with microorganisms, and maximum inhibition rates were obtained against S. lutea and MRSA of wool samples dyed with P. granatum and R. coriaria, respectively, while there was a drastic decrease in E. faecalis growth with the A. cepa (Onion skins) and R. petiolaris (Buckthorn).

Antibacterial Activity of Cationised Cotton Dyed with Some Natural Dyes
Madder, Logwood, Cutch and Chelidonium majus (Greater Celindine) were tested against common pathogens Escherichia Coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Aspergillus favus and Candida albicans. Chelidonium majus dye was most effective and showed maximum zone of inhibition there by indicating best antimicrobial activity against all the microbes tested.

Antimicrobial activity of some natural dyes
Four natural dyes Acacia catechu (Cutch), Kerria lacca (Lac), Quercus infectoria (Oak Galls), Rubia cordifolia (Indian Madder) and Rumex maritimus (Golden Dock) were tested against common pathogens Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus vulgaris and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Quercus infectoria dye was most effective and showed maximum zone of inhibition thereby indicating best antimicrobial activity against all the microbes tested.

Antibacterial Efficacy of Natural Dye from Melia compositaLeaves and Its Application in Sanitized and Protective Textiles
“Almost all these synthetic colorants being synthesized
from petrochemical sources through hazardous chemical processes
pose threat towards the environment and human body health.”
.
“Worldwide environmental consciousness coupled with increased awareness of environmental hazards of synthetic dyes has led to the revival of interest in natural dyes due to their non-polluting and nontoxic nature. Consequently, numerous researches in recent years have focused on development of non toxic and eco-friendly natural dyes for textiles colouration6. Natural dyes are being preferred over synthetics owing to their eco-friendliness i.e. they do not create any
environmental problems at the stage of production or use
.  Furthermore, in addition to their dye-yielding characteristics, some of dyeyielding plants also possess medicinal value. Some natural dyes have
intrinsic additional properties such as antibacterial, antifungal, moth
proof, anti-allergy, anti-UV, etc”

Melia composita (China berry) leaves were extracted into boiling water for 70 minutes. The extract was used to dye silk, wool and cotton. The fabric dyed with the natural dye was tested against gram
positive bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus epidermidis
and Bacillus cereus and gram negative bacteria, Escherichia coli,
Klebsiella pneumonia, Shigella flexneri and Proteus vulgaris. The dyed samples were evaluated against Ampicillin and Streptomycin. Ampicillin and Streptomycin. “The study led to the conclusion that leaves of Melia composita can be a potential source of ecofriendly natural dye with
remarkable antibacterial potency and the textile materials dyed with
this natural dye can be very useful in developing sanitized fabrics for
medical applications and protective clothing to protect users against common infections.

Natural dyes and its Antimicrobial Effect
Textile manufacturers are aware that there is a growing trend to natural and environmentally safe products.The International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT) –Volume-42 Number-3 -December 2016 states that:
“In the early 21st century, the market for natural dyes in the fashion industry is experiencing a resurge.Westernconsumers have become more concerned about the health and environmental impact of synthetic dyes in manufacturing and there is a growing demand for products that use natural dyes.Completely capturing the market with natural dyed fabric is an urgent need to maintain a safe environment. “

Colour, health and wellbeing: The hidden qualities and properties of natural dyes
In the journal of the International Colour Association (2013), Kate Wells discusses the possibilites of the uses of natural dyes to improve the health and well-being of mankind.

More
No-Nylon Sock Knitting

Natural Dye Books

The Wild Dyer: A Maker’s Guide to Natural Dyes with Projects to Create and Stitch (learn how to forage for plants, prepare textiles for dyeing, and … from coasters to a patchwork blanket)

The Modern Natural Dyer: A Comprehensive Guide to Dyeing Silk, Wool, Linen and Cotton at Home

The Art and Craft of Natural Dyeing: Traditional Recipes for Modern Use

A Weaver’s Garden: Growing Plants for Natural Dyes and Fibers

A Heritage of Colour: Natural Dyes Past and Present

Natural Dyes: Sources, Traditions, Technology & Science

Aclla

Among the ancient Inca, the Aclla Cuna or Virgins of the Sun were selected from girls aged 8-10 who had special beauty. They spent their lives in temple convents and prepared food, corn beer and tended the sacred fire. They also spun very fine thread and wove garments for the emperor to be used in special ceremonies and sacrifices.

Gods, Goddesses, and Mythology Vol 6

The Incas: New Perpectives

The Jesuit and the Incas: The Extraordinary Life of Padre Blas Valera, S.J. (History, Languages, and Cultures of the Spanish and Portuguese Worlds)

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Spinning Weaving Goddesses

Spinning and Weaving Mythology
The textile arts of weaving and spinning have always been of great importance to many cultures. Weavers and spinners have been revered as goddesses in mythology.

Kalevala 51
Kalevala 51
NameOriginGoddess
Aclla CunaPeruvianWeaving
ArachneGreekWeaving
Chi NuChineseWeaving
EileithyiaGreekSpinning
EhecatlAztecCrafts
Frau HolleGermanicSpinning
GianeSardinianSpinning, Weaving
HabetrotEnglishSpinning
Hsi-Lingh ShihChineseSilk Weaving
India RosaVenezuelaWeaving, Pottery
Ix Chebel YaxMayanWeaving, Dyeing, Spinning
IyamoopoAfricanIndigo, Weaving, Dyeing
Kanene Ski Amai YehiCherokeeWeaving, Pottery
Kothar-u-KhasisCanaaniteCrafts
LugCelticCrafts
MyrmexGreekWeaving
NeitEgyptianWeaving, Crafts
PaivatarFinnishSun, Weaving, Spinning
PapallugaSerbianSpinning
PenelopeGreekWeaving
Ruana NiedaSaamiSpinning
RuaTahitianCrafts
SauleBalticWeaving, Dance, Poetry
Spider WomanNavajo DineWeaving, Spinning
SrecaSerbianSpinning
SunnaScandinavianSpinning
SweigsdunkaLithuanianWeaving
Tatsuta-HimeJapaneseWeaving
WakahirumeJapaneseWeaving

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Vadmal

Vadmal (Wadmal) is a woven wool cloth that has been felted. Felting the fabric after weaving, thickens the cloth and makes it wind and water resistant as well as warm. Vadmal is generally woven in a tabby or a twill weave on warp weighted or floor looms.
In order to felt the fabric, there are two methods that can be used. The wet fabric can be pounded in a hammer mill for several hours in order to flatten and thicken the fabric. The hammering process creates a fabric that looks more like “real cloth” and produces a stable fabric with very little nap and the wool keeps its shine. The wool fabric can also be pounded and stamped by placing the fabric in a large bucket filled with water and stamping with your feet.

Vadmal Stamping Machine
Vadmal Stamping Machine

By Ida Dicksson – Own work, CC BY-SA 4.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=42835466

Vadmal can also be felted using a wet felting method. The woolen cloth can be felted by hand by rolling or using a washboard and also by washing the fabric in the washing machine until the fabric stops shrinking. This process can take up to 10 machine washes. The wool fabric can shrink up to 60% in size. Wet felting creates a cloth that is fuzzier in appearance than one that has been pounded.

Vadmal cloth has been used for clothing since the Viking Age. Vadmal was so popular that the woven and felted cloth was used and traded as legal tender in many Scandinavian countries. Vadmal was a major export in Iceland and the length, width, thread count of the fabrics were set by law.
Vadmal fabric is still used today in most of the Saami traditional clothing, hats, mittens, bags and other items. The vadmal clothing is often decorated with pewter thread embroidery.

Saami Kofte
Saami Kofte

Digital Museum Norway

Saami Vadmal Pewter Collar
Saami Vadmal Pewter Collar
Sami Purses
Sami Purses
Southern Sami Mittens Norway
Southern Sami Mittens Norway

By Thorguds – Own work Photo by the owner of Saamiblog, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=8056131
Saami Blogspot

Etsy
Look for Saami style vadmal and pewter thread bags and other items in my PaivatarYarns Etsy Shop.

Sami Coffee Bag
Sami Coffee Bag

How Vadmal is Made
Vadmal in Saami Clothing
Vadmal and Other Woolens
From Fabric to Vadmel
Viking Woolen Sails
On the Production of Vadmal Wool from Navajo Churro Sheep in New Mexico
Weaving Vadmal
Wadmal – Wikipedia

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Greek Flokati Rugs

A few years ago on a wonderful holiday to Corfu, Greece I purchased a beautiful sample of a Greek Flokati rug. It had been woven by my friend, Agathi the weaver, in Kassiopi, Corfu. She very kindly explained to me how these wonderful rugs are woven. The shaggy weft wool pile was made of handspun wool from local sheep. Her sister had done the handspinning and Agathi woven this fluffy rug that now sits on my rocking chair.

Corfu Flokati Rug
Corfu Flokati Rug
Agathi and Flokati Rug
Agathi and Flokati Rug

The warp and ground weft is a 2-3 ply wool yarn woven in tabby weave. The handspun wool is cut into 15-20 cm lengths and then laid in between weft sheds, going under 3 raised warp threads. A shot of weft yarn is thrown across, change shed, and then the weft pile is woven back through 2 warp ends. This locks the cut pile firmly in place. Then 3 shots of ground weft are woven in tabby, before another row of handspun cut pile is laid across.

Flokati Rug Closeup
Flokati Rug Closeup

Flokati or Floccata rugs have a long history in Greece dating back some 1500-2000 years to villages in the northern mountainous regions of Greece. Sheepskins were used for warmth and the long shaggy pile of sheepskin was duplicated by weavers who inserted the wool locks into their woven rugs. These shaggy pile rugs are somewhat similar to the early rya pile rugs of Scandinavia, but the method of knotting the pile differs. IN a Flokati the cut pile is laid across the weft. In a Rya rug, the cut pile is wrapped and looped around the warp threads.

The definition of Flokati: “A Hand-woven shaggy 100% wool rug made in Greece.”
In 1966 the Greek government set standards for the Flokati rug industry. The law specified that for a rug to be classified as a “Flokati, it must be hand woven in Greece and must be made of 100% wool (warp, weft, and pile). Total weight of the rug must be at least 1800 grams of wool per square meter. The Flokati must be subjected to the water friction process for the pile to unravel and fluff out.

Flokati Rugs in Greece
Flokati Rugs in Greece
Spindle Spinning
Spindle Spinning

In the 1960’s Trikkala was the centre of the flokati rug industry and the wool market was held there in May and handweavers came from surrounding villages to buy their fleece, weaving tools and cotton yarns. There was a factory headquaraters in the centre of town where wool was carded and spun by machine. Weavers wovek the rugs in their homes, workig on narrow looms, threaded with singles yarn. The tufts were inserted without knotting at irrgular intervals. Because the looms were small and the woven rugs were thick, they had to be cut off the front roller of the loom frequently. The pieces were stitched together to create the larger rugs.

Trikkala Wool Market
Trikkala Wool Market

After weaving, the rug was heavily felted by heavy beating and immersion into pools or waterfalls. The flokati rugs were woven in natural white or alternating striped natural colours of browns, greys and creams. Natural dyes were also used on some of the rugs.
Flokati Rug Sample
I had about a meter left of wool warp on my loom after I wove a number of handspun blankets, so I thought I would try to weave a bit of Flokati.

Using the same wool yarn as was used for the warp, I wove several shots of tabby weave.

Cut the handspun yarn into 15-20 cm lengths. I cut a piece of cardboard into a width of 10 cm and wrapped the handspun around it. Then cut the lengths of pile.

Cutting Flokati Pile
Cutting Flokati Pile

With an open shed in tabby weave, lay the cut pile ends across the weft, passing each thread under 3 raised warp ends. Repeat this across the width of the warp.

Flokati Rug Weaving
Flokati Rug Weaving

With the same shed still open, weave across a shot of the wool ground weft.
Change the shed.

I like to work from the right to the left, so I pick up the right side of the cut warp pile, and feed it back through 2 warp ends to the left. Repeat this across all of the handspun cut pile.

Laying Flokati Pile Across Warp
Laying Flokati Pile Across Warp

With the same shed still open, weave across a shot of the wool ground weft.
This locks the flocati pile firmly into place.

Weaving in Flokati Pile
Weaving in Flokati Pile

Weave another 2 shots of ground weft in tabby.
There will now be 3 shots of tabby weave between the row of pile.

Lay in another row of cut pile across the width of the warp as above. Each row of pile should be about 1 cm apart, with 3 rows of ground tabby.

Flokati Rug on the Loom
Flokati Rug on the Loom

I will be weaving this Flokati rug sample with different types of handspun wool, to see what works best.

When it is complete, the rug will be fulled by washing and beating in the bathtub, to fluff out the pile.

References:
CIBA Review 1969/2 Greek Contemporary Handweaving

Where the Greek Flokati Rug is King Chicago Tribune, Apr 4, 1976

Agathis
Agathi, a wonderful and talented weaver I met in Kassiopi, Corfu

Corfu Spindle
Learning to spin on a Corfu style drop spindle.

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How to Make a Tin Embroidered Key Chain

Tenntrådsbroderi, or embroidering with pewter or tin thread is almost a lost art. The Saami used tin thread since the 1600’s to decorate their clothing. The tin was obtained by melting down old pewter plates and dishes and was spun into thread. The use of pewter thread has recently become fashionable in jewellery items such as pewter braided reindeer leather bracelets worn by actors such as Benedict Cumberbatch.

Tin thread is quite difficult to work with and requires a lot of patience and practice to make. This is a how-to project for making a reindeer leather keychain with tin embroidery.

Working with tin and leather can also be quite hard on your hands so if you have any hand, wrist or shoulder problems, please do not try this project. If you do this project or any other needlework project be sure to take frequent breaks and or work on a different type of project, to give your hands a rest.

Reindeer Leather Keyring
Reindeer Leather Keyring

Materials
You will need:
a small piece of reindeer leather, about 9 cm x 7 cm
a narrow strip of reindeer leather, 1.5 cm x 24 cm
Tin thread, about 1 meter length
a small square of wool felt, wadmal or a sturdy piece of wool cloth, about 7 cm x 7 cm
light iron on interfacing, linen fabric or natural cotton fabric, about 7 cm x 7 cm
fine leather needle
sewing needle
thimble
silk thread or good quality polyester thread
invisible sewing thread
metric graph paper
fine permanent marker felt tip pens

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The Pattern
Sketch the pattern onto metric lined graph paper. This pattern has been drawn on 5 mm lined graph paper.

Snowflake tin embroidery pattern
Snowflake embroidery pattern

Trace the pattern onto iron on interfacing using a permanent marker. I have marked the end points of each snowflake with dark blue ink. This makes it easier to see the end of the stitch when you are embroidering.

Snowflake Embroidery
Snowflake Embroidery

Iron the interfacing onto the back of the small piece of wool felt or fabric. In this example I have used a small piece of handmade wool felt but you can use wadmal (which is a woven wool fabric that has been felted) or other sturdy wool fabric. I have also used linen fabric for the pattern rather than interfacing, because I happened to have some in my stash.
I have stitched the fabric onto the felt using a basting stitch.

Tin Thread Embroidery Pattern
Tin Thread Embroidery Pattern

Tin Thread
You will need about a meter of tin thread for this project. If you have a longer length of tin such as on a spool, don’t cut it at this point. Instead I sew with it while it is still on the spool and cut the end when I am done, so that I don’t have any waste as the pewter thread is quite expensive to buy.

Tin Thread
Tin Thread

Tin thread comes in a number of thicknesses ranging from .25 to .5 in diameter. For this project I have used .3 but you can use a finer tin thread .25 or a thicker one if that is what you have on hand.

Tin Thread Unraveling
Tin Thread Unraveling

To make it easier to thread the end through to the back of the felt, you will need to unravel a bit of the tin from the core thread. The tin has been spun around a core thread. Pinch the end of the thread between your thumb and forefinger about 2 cm from the end. With your other hand give a bit of a twist to the thread. The tin will untwist and can be stretched out.

Tin Thread Unwound
Tin Thread Unwound

Starting at the centre of the snowflake thread your sewing needle through the felt and pull the unraveled ends of the tin thread through to the back of the work.

Tin Thread Sewing
Tin Thread Sewing
Tin Thread Sewing
Tin Thread Sewing

Tin Thread Embroidery
Thread a sewing needle with the invisible nylon thread. I find it best to tie a couple of knots at the end of the thread, one on top of another to make a secure knot.
Sew a few stitches to secure the ends of the tin thread to the back of the fabric.

Using the pattern drawn on the back of the work as your guide, follow carefully along the lines as you stitch the tin thread to the wool felt. Pull the needle to the front of the work, and stitch the tin thread to the wool felt. Work your way along the pattern being careful to keep the stitches in line with the pattern. Use very small stitches to sew the work.

Tin Thread Embroidery
Tin Thread Embroidery

When you get to a corner, push the needle through to the front of the work, and wrap the tin thread around the needle to form the corner. I give the tin thread a bit of a pinch to help hold the shape. Sew the corner securely in place. Pewter thread is quite soft. The thread can break while you are working with it, so do this carefully.

Tin Thread Embroidery
Tin Thread Embroidery
Tin Thread Embroidery
Tin Thread Embroidery

Once you have stitched your way around the pattern cut the tin thread leaving an end of about 2 cm. Pinch the end of the thread and unravel it as before.
Thread this through to the back of the work.

Tin Thread Embroidery
Tin Thread Embroidery

Reindeer Leather
Draw an outline cutting pattern for the key fob on a piece of graph paper and cut it out.

Key Fob Pattern
Key Fob Pattern

Using this paper pattern cut the embroidered felt to the shape of the key fob pattern.

Cut a piece of reindeer leather using the same pattern.

Put the cut reindeer leather and the embroidered felt together. Using the leather needle threaded with polyester or silk thread, stitch around both of them using a whip stitch. Fold the end section of the reindeer leather under and stitch into place.
To make the key fob a bit thicker insert a small piece of plastic or other thick material in between the felt and the leather.

Reindeer Leather Snowflake
Reindeer Leather Snowflake

Reindeer Leather Edge Finish
Fold the 24 cm strip of reindeer leather in half and cut a small slit in the centre. This will fit over the top part of the key fob.

Reindeer Leather Key Fob
Reindeer Leather Key Fob
Leather Key Fob
Leather Key Fob

Sew the leather edge to the key fob using small backstitching.

Reindeer Leather Keyring
Reindeer Leather Keyring

Paivatar Yarn on Etsy

I hope that you will visit my shop on Etsy and add a like.
More About Sami Duodji
Sami Art of Tin Thread Spinning
Sami Reindeer Bracelets
What is Sami Duodji
Sami Open Braid Weaving
Beaivi Rigid Heddle Weaving Video

Saami Band Weaving Workshops

Beginner Saami Pickup Band Weaving Learn the basics of how to weave pickup using a Beaivi double hole rigid heddle loom.
Warp a Beaivi Loom Workshop Learn how to warp a Beaivi loom and how to weave pickup patterns.
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Saami Music – Itunes

Binna Banna – Kikki Aikio
Áphi (Wide As Oceans) – Sofia Jannok
Ulda – Ulla Pirttijärvi & Ulda
The Kautokeino Rebellion (Music from the Movie) – Herman Rundberg, Mari Boine & Svein Schultz
Beaivi, Áhcázan (The Sun, My Father) – Nils-Aslak Valkeapää

Saami Books
The Sámi People: Traditions in Transitions
The Sami Peoples of the North: A Social and Cultural History
Lapps and Labyrinths: Saami Prehistory, Colonization, and Cultural Resilience
Badin and the Secret of the Saami
Saami and the White Wolf
Talk Now! Learn Saami (Northern) (2015) (Talk Now 2015) by EuroTalk Ltd (2015-01-01)
Saami Inspired Bracelet Basics: How to make a Saami inspired pewter thread bracelet. (Saami Inspired Bracelets Book 1)
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30" Schacht Flip Rigid Heddle Loom and Stand - new

$255.00 (18 Bids)
End Date: Tuesday Feb-25-2020 13:43:31 PST
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Harrisville Designs 36" 4H/6T Floor Loom and Bench vtg 2004/2005

$1,100.00
End Date: Saturday Mar-21-2020 11:31:59 PDT
Buy It Now for only: $1,100.00
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Mirrix Zach 22 Inch Loom

$325.00
End Date: Tuesday Mar-17-2020 11:32:10 PDT
Buy It Now for only: $325.00
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Agathis

A few weeks ago I had a lovely holiday in Kassiopi, Corfu. I had visited there a few years ago and had discovered a very talented weaver who has a small shop on the main street of Kassiopi. I was very pleased to see that she is still in business and is doing well. She is expanding her style and line of goods as her daughter-in-law is now learning to weave and is adding some of her own handwoven products to the shop.

Agathi studied weaving, sewing, crochet, needlework and textiles at a specialist school in Crete. She first started her shop in the early 70’s by crocheting and selling her products out on the street to the tourists who would pass by her home. Fairly quickly she was able to expand into a shop and she has successfully run her business and worked there since.
Crete Textile School

Agathis has a loom in the middle of the shop that always has a new project on it. During the summer months, you can see Agathis busy at work throughout the day and into the late evening.

Agathis loom

Bamboo Reed
bamboo reed
Agathis showed me a beautiful bamboo reed that her mother used to weave with. The bamboo dents occasionally broke but they could be replaced by cutting and filing another piece of bamboo.

shelves
Not only weaving – Agathis is proficient at crochet, needlework, embroidery, weaving and just about any other textile craft. Her shelves are brimming with handmade products that she has produced. I could spend hours at her shop, marvelling at what she has made. Every piece has a story behind it, and she is very happy to share her wealth of knowledge.

Crewel Work – Chain Stitch Embroidery
Chain stitch embroidery

Flokati Rugs
Flokati rugs

Embroidered Laces
embroidered laces

Crochet Angels


Handwoven Linen dyed with Natural Dyes

(Red and Yellow Onion Skins)
Red onion linen

red onion linen

Hand woven Throws
Handwoven throws
She also has a larger loom that she puts up during the winter months so she can weave wider projects such as throws and blankets.

Mario’s Olive Wood Workshop

Agathis also has a very talented son, Mario who specializes in woodworking using olive wood. He also has a shop in Kassiopi and ships his products worldwide.
Mario's olive wood
Mario's olive wood

30" Schacht Flip Rigid Heddle Loom and Stand - new

$255.00 (18 Bids)
End Date: Tuesday Feb-25-2020 13:43:31 PST
Bid now | Add to watch list

Harrisville Designs 36" 4H/6T Floor Loom and Bench vtg 2004/2005

$1,100.00
End Date: Saturday Mar-21-2020 11:31:59 PDT
Buy It Now for only: $1,100.00
Buy It Now | Add to watch list

Mirrix Zach 22 Inch Loom

$325.00
End Date: Tuesday Mar-17-2020 11:32:10 PDT
Buy It Now for only: $325.00
Buy It Now | Add to watch list

iTunes Apps

Here are some specialized iTunes apps for crafters designed for use with iPads or iPhones. If you have used any of these and like them, or can recommend other ones, please let us know.

iSpin Toolkit – Michael Golden
Shows you the angle of your twist and calculates the WPI of your handspun yarn. Brilliant!

StitchSketch – Mozusystems, LLC
Design a simple chart for your knitting or cross stitch project.

iWeaveIt – Canyon Art, LLC.
A weavers drawdown program designed for the IPad or Iphone.

myGrozBeckert – Groz-Beckert

Yarn Store GPS – Sutro Media
Find a local yarn shop when you travel.
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Knitting

Knitting Chart Maker – Awesome Applications Corporation

Knit – knitting counter for iPhone – KAZE Application

Wooly: A Ravelry companion app for Knitting and Crochet – Wooly

Ewe Stash – Knitting and Crochet Inventory – Treeness, LLC

Cross Stitch

Cross Stitch Calculator – Goatella

Cross Stitch Fabric Calculator Plus – ActiveGuru Ltd.

Quilting and Sewing

Sewing Kit HD – Vesta Software, LLC

QuiltingCalc – Robert Kaufman Fabrics

Games

Woven – OatyCakes
Weave a tapestry.

Sew ’em Up – Free Stitching and Sewing game – evinceStudios

Sewing Machine Race – FujiTV

Buttons and Scissors – KyWorks Software

Magazines

Textile Fibre Forum – magazinecloner.com NZ LP

Fiber Art Now – Contemporary Fiber Arts & Textiles – Magazinecloner.com US LLC

How to Guides

Spinning and Weaving – Ultimate Guide to Home Spinning and Weaving – AppWarrior
A beginner primer for weaving and hand spinning.

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30" Schacht Flip Rigid Heddle Loom and Stand - new

$255.00 (18 Bids)
End Date: Tuesday Feb-25-2020 13:43:31 PST
Bid now | Add to watch list

Harrisville Designs 36" 4H/6T Floor Loom and Bench vtg 2004/2005

$1,100.00
End Date: Saturday Mar-21-2020 11:31:59 PDT
Buy It Now for only: $1,100.00
Buy It Now | Add to watch list

Mirrix Zach 22 Inch Loom

$325.00
End Date: Tuesday Mar-17-2020 11:32:10 PDT
Buy It Now for only: $325.00
Buy It Now | Add to watch list

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