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How to Make a Tin Embroidered Key Chain

Tenntrådsbroderi, or embroidering with pewter or tin thread is almost a lost art. The Saami used tin thread since the 1600’s to decorate their clothing. The tin was obtained by melting down old pewter plates and dishes and was spun into thread. The use of pewter thread has recently become fashionable in jewellery items such as pewter braided reindeer leather bracelets worn by actors such as Benedict Cumberbatch.

Tin thread is quite difficult to work with and requires a lot of patience and practice to make. This is a how-to project for making a reindeer leather keychain with tin embroidery.

Working with tin and leather can also be quite hard on your hands so if you have any hand, wrist or shoulder problems, please do not try this project. If you do this project or any other needlework project be sure to take frequent breaks and or work on a different type of project, to give your hands a rest.

Reindeer Leather Keyring
Reindeer Leather Keyring

Materials
You will need:
a small piece of reindeer leather, about 9 cm x 7 cm
a narrow strip of reindeer leather, 1.5 cm x 24 cm
Tin thread, about 1 meter length
a small square of wool felt, wadmal or a sturdy piece of wool cloth, about 7 cm x 7 cm
light iron on interfacing, linen fabric or natural cotton fabric, about 7 cm x 7 cm
fine leather needle
sewing needle
thimble
silk thread or good quality polyester thread
invisible sewing thread
metric graph paper
fine permanent marker felt tip pens

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The Pattern
Sketch the pattern onto metric lined graph paper. This pattern has been drawn on 5 mm lined graph paper.

Snowflake tin embroidery pattern
Snowflake embroidery pattern

Trace the pattern onto iron on interfacing using a permanent marker. I have marked the end points of each snowflake with dark blue ink. This makes it easier to see the end of the stitch when you are embroidering.

Snowflake Embroidery
Snowflake Embroidery

Iron the interfacing onto the back of the small piece of wool felt or fabric. In this example I have used a small piece of handmade wool felt but you can use wadmal (which is a woven wool fabric that has been felted) or other sturdy wool fabric. I have also used linen fabric for the pattern rather than interfacing, because I happened to have some in my stash.
I have stitched the fabric onto the felt using a basting stitch.

Tin Thread Embroidery Pattern
Tin Thread Embroidery Pattern

Tin Thread
You will need about a meter of tin thread for this project. If you have a longer length of tin such as on a spool, don’t cut it at this point. Instead I sew with it while it is still on the spool and cut the end when I am done, so that I don’t have any waste as the pewter thread is quite expensive to buy.

Tin Thread
Tin Thread

Tin thread comes in a number of thicknesses ranging from .25 to .5 in diameter. For this project I have used .3 but you can use a finer tin thread .25 or a thicker one if that is what you have on hand.

Tin Thread Unraveling
Tin Thread Unraveling

To make it easier to thread the end through to the back of the felt, you will need to unravel a bit of the tin from the core thread. The tin has been spun around a core thread. Pinch the end of the thread between your thumb and forefinger about 2 cm from the end. With your other hand give a bit of a twist to the thread. The tin will untwist and can be stretched out.

Tin Thread Unwound
Tin Thread Unwound

Starting at the centre of the snowflake thread your sewing needle through the felt and pull the unraveled ends of the tin thread through to the back of the work.

Tin Thread Sewing
Tin Thread Sewing
Tin Thread Sewing
Tin Thread Sewing

Tin Thread Embroidery
Thread a sewing needle with the invisible nylon thread. I find it best to tie a couple of knots at the end of the thread, one on top of another to make a secure knot.
Sew a few stitches to secure the ends of the tin thread to the back of the fabric.

Using the pattern drawn on the back of the work as your guide, follow carefully along the lines as you stitch the tin thread to the wool felt. Pull the needle to the front of the work, and stitch the tin thread to the wool felt. Work your way along the pattern being careful to keep the stitches in line with the pattern. Use very small stitches to sew the work.

Tin Thread Embroidery
Tin Thread Embroidery

When you get to a corner, push the needle through to the front of the work, and wrap the tin thread around the needle to form the corner. I give the tin thread a bit of a pinch to help hold the shape. Sew the corner securely in place. Pewter thread is quite soft. The thread can break while you are working with it, so do this carefully.

Tin Thread Embroidery
Tin Thread Embroidery
Tin Thread Embroidery
Tin Thread Embroidery

Once you have stitched your way around the pattern cut the tin thread leaving an end of about 2 cm. Pinch the end of the thread and unravel it as before.
Thread this through to the back of the work.

Tin Thread Embroidery
Tin Thread Embroidery

Reindeer Leather
Draw an outline cutting pattern for the key fob on a piece of graph paper and cut it out.

Key Fob Pattern
Key Fob Pattern

Using this paper pattern cut the embroidered felt to the shape of the key fob pattern.

Cut a piece of reindeer leather using the same pattern.

Put the cut reindeer leather and the embroidered felt together. Using the leather needle threaded with polyester or silk thread, stitch around both of them using a whip stitch. Fold the end section of the reindeer leather under and stitch into place.
To make the key fob a bit thicker insert a small piece of plastic or other thick material in between the felt and the leather.

Reindeer Leather Snowflake
Reindeer Leather Snowflake

Reindeer Leather Edge Finish
Fold the 24 cm strip of reindeer leather in half and cut a small slit in the centre. This will fit over the top part of the key fob.

Reindeer Leather Key Fob
Reindeer Leather Key Fob
Leather Key Fob
Leather Key Fob

Sew the leather edge to the key fob using small backstitching.

Reindeer Leather Keyring
Reindeer Leather Keyring

Paivatar Yarn on Etsy

I hope that you will visit my shop on Etsy and add a like.
More About Sami Duodji
Sami Art of Tin Thread Spinning
Sami Reindeer Bracelets
What is Sami Duodji
Sami Open Braid Weaving
Beaivi Rigid Heddle Weaving Video

Saami Band Weaving Workshops

Beginner Saami Pickup Band Weaving Learn the basics of how to weave pickup using a Beaivi double hole rigid heddle loom.
Warp a Beaivi Loom Workshop Learn how to warp a Beaivi loom and how to weave pickup patterns.
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Saami Music – Itunes

Binna Banna – Kikki Aikio
Áphi (Wide As Oceans) – Sofia Jannok
Ulda – Ulla Pirttijärvi & Ulda
The Kautokeino Rebellion (Music from the Movie) – Herman Rundberg, Mari Boine & Svein Schultz
Beaivi, Áhcázan (The Sun, My Father) – Nils-Aslak Valkeapää

Saami Books
The Sámi People: Traditions in Transitions
The Sami Peoples of the North: A Social and Cultural History
Lapps and Labyrinths: Saami Prehistory, Colonization, and Cultural Resilience
Badin and the Secret of the Saami
Saami and the White Wolf
Talk Now! Learn Saami (Northern) (2015) (Talk Now 2015) by EuroTalk Ltd (2015-01-01)
Saami Inspired Bracelet Basics: How to make a Saami inspired pewter thread bracelet. (Saami Inspired Bracelets Book 1)
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Electric bobbin winder, weaving loom

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Antique Vintage Nilus Leclerc Loom Tension Box Warp Weaving Wood

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Gota 24 inch wide fold-able hand weaving loom imported from Sweden Free Shipping

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Buy It Now for only: $325.00
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Sami Reindeer Bracelets

Saami Reindeer Leather Bracelets

One of the traditional Saami duodji crafts is leathermaking. I thought I would give it a try. I started with something simple by purchasing a Sami bracelet kit from a Sami supplier in Sweden TNKReativt.

Sami reindeer bracelet kit
The bracelet kit includes a piece of reindeer leather, tin thread, artificial sinew, clear nylon thread, sewing thread, a sewing needle, a leather needle and a reindeer antler button.

Weave the Braid
The kit includes enough tin thread to make a six strand braid.
Cut the tin thread into 3 equal lengths and fold these in half to create 6 strands.
I use a foam felting mat to work on.
Pin the folded end of the tin thread onto the foam mat.
Separate the 6 strands into 3 strands of 2 threads each.
Work a 3 strand braid along the length of the thread.
I pin the braid onto the foam about every inch or so, to hold it in place as I am braiding.

When you have finished braiding, secure the ends by tying a short piece of sinew around the ends. The sinew that is supplied is a short length, but this can be separated into several strands. Use a small strand to tie the tin braid.
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Hand Stitch Braid to Leather Strip

To adjust the bracelet to the correct size, measure around your wrist. Add 1 cm to this measurement. Cut the length of reindeer leather to this size.

On the back side of the leather strip, measure and mark a cutting line 1.5 cm from the end of both ends.

Fold the leather strip in half and carefully cut a small slit into the leather, the width of the woven tin braiding.

Place the woven braid on the right side of the leather strip and slip the ends of the braid into the slits that you have cut.

Using the regular sewing needle that came with the kit and the nylon thread, stitch the braid onto the leather strip.
(The instructions that came with the kit, suggest using glue to attach the braid to the leather, but I do not recomment this) Hand stitching will make a better bracelet.

Attach Braided Loop to Leather Bracelet

The bracelet kit includes a short piece of leather strip and some imitation sinew. Split the sinew into a narrower thread and twist the sinew around the leather strip. The sinew will give the leather a bit of extra strength in the loop.

Thread the leather strip and sinew through the loop at the end of the tin braid. Then twist the leather strip and sinew together tightly and ply them together to make a spun thread. Tie the ends with the remaining sinew.


Thread the leather sewing needle with the end of the sinew and stitch the 2 ends of the leather braid together forming a loop. Sew this securely.

Trim the cut ends of the tin braid to 1 cm. Sew these end together with a bit of sinew.

Finishing
Using the leather needle, thread it with the polyester thread that came with the kit.
At the back of the bracelet, fold the ends of the leather together and neatly stitch them together.

Sew the reindeeer antler button to the other end of the bracelet.

Saami Reindeer Bracelet

Additional Tools

Once you have made your first Saami bracelet you might decide that you like working with leather, as I did. To make life easier, you will need to purchase a few extra tools.
1) A good lamp with a magnifying glass. Once I bought one, I don’t know how I managed without it. The hand can do what the eyes can see.
Brightech LightView Pro Dimmable LED Magnifying Floor Lamp with 6 Wheels Rolling Base – For Professional Use and Crafts– Adjustable Gooseneck Glass Lighted Magnifier Lens Standing Light

2) Extra Leather Sewing Needles
It’s helpful to have a few different sizes on hand.
Tandy Leather Stitching Needle 10/pk 1195-00

3) A good sewing thimble.
I like the Clover ones as I find them quite comfortable to wear.
Clover 6026 Medium Protect and Grip Thimble

4) Synthetic Sinew
Use synthetic sinew for stitching leather pieces together. Sinew comes in different colours, but I find the natural one is suitable for most uses.
1 X Natural Simulated Sinew

5) Jewellery Making Pliers
Use for tin embroidery to pinch tin thread into shape before stitching.
Jewelry Tools, High Grade Jewelry Pliers Including the Necessary Crimper, Organized Zipped Case for your Jewelry Making Tools
6) Good quality sewing thread.
The polyester threads are good but I prefer to use silk thread. I find it has less tendency to shred while stitching.
Gutermann Silk Thread, 100m/109 yd, Dark Brown

More Saami Crafts

How to weave with a Beaivi double hole heddle.
How to Make a Tin Embroidery Key Chain
Saami Art of Tin Thread Spinning

Saami Beaivi Loom Weaving Workshops

Beginner Saami Pickup Band Weaving Learn the basics of how to weave pickup using a Beaivi double hole rigid heddle loom.
Warp a Beaivi Loom Workshop Learn how to warp a Beaivi loom and how to weave pickup patterns.

Saami Reindeer Leather Purse

Saami Reindeer Leather Purse
Saami Reindeer Leather Purse

Look for my handmade Saami reindeer leather pouches and bags in my PaivatarYarn shop on Etsy.

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Saami Music – Itunes
Binna Banna – Kikki Aikio
Áphi (Wide As Oceans) – Sofia Jannok
Ulda – Ulla Pirttijärvi & Ulda
The Kautokeino Rebellion (Music from the Movie) – Herman Rundberg, Mari Boine & Svein Schultz
Beaivi, Áhcázan (The Sun, My Father) – Nils-Aslak Valkeapää

Saami Books
The Sámi People: Traditions in Transitions
The Sami Peoples of the North: A Social and Cultural History
Lapps and Labyrinths: Saami Prehistory, Colonization, and Cultural Resilience
Badin and the Secret of the Saami
Saami and the White Wolf
Talk Now! Learn Saami (Northern) (2015) (Talk Now 2015) by EuroTalk Ltd (2015-01-01)
Saami Inspired Bracelet Basics: How to make a Saami inspired pewter thread bracelet. (Saami Inspired Bracelets Book 1)

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Electric bobbin winder, weaving loom

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Antique Vintage Nilus Leclerc Loom Tension Box Warp Weaving Wood

$109.99
End Date: Saturday Dec-14-2019 5:45:28 PST
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Gota 24 inch wide fold-able hand weaving loom imported from Sweden Free Shipping

$325.00
End Date: Tuesday Dec-10-2019 18:01:18 PST
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Ladder Hem Stitch: aa080300

This edging finish is great for handwoven towels, table runners or blanket throws.

Weave 4 inches of tabby at the beginning of your project. You might wish to use a
lighter weight weft yarn for this, as it will become a folded edge on your finished
article.

ladder hem stitch

  • Using either the same yarn as your weft, or a contrasting yarn, thread a length
    onto a tapestry needle.
  • Work from the right warp edge, sewing to the left.
  • Open the shed and weave in the end of the yarn.
  • Decide how many warp threads you will use for the “ladders” of the
    hemstitch.
  • In this example, I am using 4 warp ends.
  • Place the needle under the next 4 warp ends, and pull the yarn through.

Ladder hem stitch

  • Bring the needle over the group of 4 threads and around back to the edge of the
    warp.
  • This will form a loop around the warp threads.
  • Bring the needle back underneath the warp,
  • Go down 3 weft picks and and over 4 warp threads
  • You should be directly under the left side of the group of warp threads.
  • Bring the needle back up through the warp
  • Place the needle directly above the warp threads and repeat the steps
    above
  • Work your way across the length of the warp.

  • Weave a shot or 2 of a thicker cotton or linen yarn across the web
  • This forms the height of the ladder, and will be later removed.

  • Similarly to the procedure described above, you will now sew the top portion of
    the ladder hem.
  • Work from the right edge to the left
  • Thread the tapestry needle with another length of yarn
  • Pass the needle under the first group of 4 warp threads and bring it over,
    forming a loop.

  • Count up 3 weft shots, directly above the left side of the warp group.Bring your needle under the warp and up through the warp.
  • Pull the yarn through and tighten the loop.
  • Repeat, working your way across the warp.

You are now ready to weave!

Once your project is woven, repeat the above steps to complete the other edge of the
article. Finish by weaving another 4 inch hem allowance in tabby.

Remove the woven article from the loom.Zigzag sew the edges at the end of the warp
before washing.Pull out the weft yarn that was used as the ladder spacer.

Ladder hem stitch

ladder hem stitch

After washing, trim the edges along the zigzag seam, and fold over the 4″ hem
allowance, to the edge of the ladder stitch. Hand hem the edge neatly.

How to Use a McMorran Balance

How to Wash a Wool Blanket

How to Make a Twisted Fringe

How to Sew Handwoven Fabrics

How to Finish Chenille

Table of Setts

Weaving Books: Projects to Weave

Favorite Scandinavian Projects to Weave: 45 Stylish Designs for the Modern Home
A collection of 45 different furnishing textiles: colorful blankets, fanciful table runners, classic curtains, and embroidered hand towels.
UK: Favorite Scandinavian Projects to Weave

Rug Weaving Techniques: Beyond the Basics
Concise instructions and explanatory diagrams techniques for plain weave, twill and block weaves.
UK: Rug Weaving Techniques

Weaving Made Easy: 17 Projects Using a Simple Loom
The small, portable rigid heddle loom can be used to easily produce loose, drape-friendly fabric as well as dense, sturdy material.
UK: Weaving Made Easy

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McMorran Balance: aa022800

Have you ever purchased a cone of yarn and don’t know how much yarn you really have? It’s easy to find out, by using a handy tool called a McMorran balance. The McMorran balance is a scale that allows you to determine the yardage of a particular yarn. It consists of a rectangular plastic box and a balancing arm. The arm has been calibrated to calculate the yards per lb. of a particular yarn. Metric versions of McMorran balances can also be purchased.
To use it, follow the steps outlined below:

McMorran balance

Place the McMorran balance on a level surface, such as on the edge of a table.

Set the pins of the small balancing arm into the small notches on the top of the box.

McMorran balance

Lay a length of yarn in the notch of the balance, allowing the yarn to hang down towards the floor.

McMorran Balance
McMorran Balance

Using scissors start to trim the length of yarn, cutting about 1/2 inch at a time, until the balancing arm is level.

McMorran Balance

When the arm is level, remove the length of yarn from the balance. Measure the length of yarn against a ruler.

McMorran balance

  • Multiply the measurement x 100.
  • This measurement gives you the number of yards per lb. of yarn (ypp)
  • e.g. 8.4 inches x 100 =840 ypp

If you are measuring bumpy, slub or a handspun yarn, the measurement may not be accurate due to inconsistencies in the yarn but it will give you an approximate estimate. I use the McMorran balance to calculate how many yards of yarn are left on a cone.

For example, if using the McMorran balance, I know that the yarn is 840
ypp, I then weigh the cone of yarn, e.g. 12 oz. (.75 lb) – the cone has 840 x .75 = 630 yards of yarn left. I also find the McMorran balance to be very useful when
handspinning, to check the consistency of the yarn that I am spinning.

A few places to find a McMorran balance:
Halcyon Yarns
The Woolery

Handweaving

Double Width Weaving
Ladder Hem Stitch
How to Make a Twisted Fringe
How to Finish Chenille
How to Wash a Wool Blanket

Weaving Books: Beginner Weaving

Favorite Scandinavian Projects to Weave: 45 Stylish Designs for the Modern Home
A collection of 45 different furnishing textiles: colorful blankets, fanciful table runners, classic curtains, and embroidered hand towels.
UK: Favorite Scandinavian Projects to Weave

Rug Weaving Techniques: Beyond the Basics
Concise instructions and explanatory diagrams techniques for plain weave, twill and block weaves.
UK: Rug Weaving Techniques

Weaving Made Easy: 17 Projects Using a Simple Loom
The small, portable rigid heddle loom can be used to easily produce loose, drape-friendly fabric as well as dense, sturdy material.
UK: Weaving Made Easy

..more Handweaving books..

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Electric bobbin winder, weaving loom

$148.00
End Date: Thursday Dec-5-2019 19:58:05 PST
Buy It Now for only: $148.00
Buy It Now | Add to watch list

Antique Vintage Nilus Leclerc Loom Tension Box Warp Weaving Wood

$109.99
End Date: Saturday Dec-14-2019 5:45:28 PST
Buy It Now for only: $109.99
Buy It Now | Add to watch list

Gota 24 inch wide fold-able hand weaving loom imported from Sweden Free Shipping

$325.00
End Date: Tuesday Dec-10-2019 18:01:18 PST
Buy It Now for only: $325.00
Buy It Now | Add to watch list

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Lucet Braiding: bllucet

During a Renaissance Festival that I attended, Celeste Colbourne of Spinsters Loft, gave a demonstration of using a Lucet to make braiding. The Lucet creates a flat braid that can be used to embellish the edges of a handwoven article.

  • Begin by threading the yarn through the hole in the bottom of the Lucet
  • Make a figure 8 loop around the 2 prongs of the lucet
  • loop the yarn a second time around the right prong and turn the lucet around

  • Lift the bottom loop over the top loop
  • Slip the looped yarn over the prong
  • Give a tug on the bottom of the yarn to tighten the knot into place

  • Wrap the yarn around the other side of the lucet prong
  • Lift the bottom loop over the top loop and over the prong
  • Give a tug on the bottom yarn to pull the yarn into place
  • Repeat this procedure until the cord is of sufficient length

lucet braiding

  • Top view of the Lucet cording

  • The finished Lucet cord

Lucet Braiding with Two Colours – You Tube

Braiding Books

200 Braids to Twist, Knot, Loop, or Weave

Hundreds of sumptuous braided designs are arranged by structure, from twisted and knotted pieces to more elaborate looped and woven examples.
UK: 200 Braids to Twist

The Complete Book of Decorative Knots
Eighty ornamental and useful knots with easy-to-follow; with step-by-step illustrations.
UK: Decorative Knots

..more Braid weaving books..

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How to Wash a Wool Blanket: how_wash_wool_blanket

Before the invention of washing machines and dry cleaners, wool was always washed safely by hand. With a bit of care, you can still do so without shrinking the blanket.

Difficulty Level:

Average

Time Required:

90 minutes

Here’s How:

  1. Fill a large wash tub, or your bath tub, with cool – lukewarm water.
  2. Add a mild soap, such as dishwashing liquid, to the water (no bleach).
  3. Place the wool blanket into the soapy water.
  4. Allow the blanket to soak for about an hour.
  5. Any soiled spots can be gently hand-rubbed in the water to release the dirt.
  6. Drain the water from the tub.
  7. Refill the wash basin or tub with cool – lukewarm water.
  8. Hold the blanket away from the running water, so that the water is not spraying onto the blanket, or it might felt that part of the blanket.
  9. Allow the blanket to soak in the rinse water for a few minutes.
  10. Drain the water from the tub.
  11. Squeeze any excess moisture from the blanket.
  12. Hang the blanket to dry outside, or drape over the shower curtain rod in your bathroom and allow to air dry.

Tips:

 

  • If drying in your bathroom, you may want to place a few towels under the blanket to catch any excess dripping from the blanket.
  • Heat and agitation cause felting of wool. If wool blankets (or sweaters) are washed in cool water and are not agitated, such as in your washing machine (even on gentle cycle), felting should not occur.

How To

How Long does it take to knit
How to Make an Alum Mordant
How to Mordant Cotton and Linen Yarns
How to Sew Handwoven Fabric
How to Spin a Cabled Yarn
How to Make a Tin Mordant
How to Make a Twisted Fringe
How to Use a Corker
How to Wash Fleece
How to Felt
How to Use a McMorran Balance

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How to Wash Fleece: how_wash_fleece

Although a fleece can be spun ‘in the grease’, many times it is desirable to wash or scour it before handspinning.

Difficulty Level:

Easy

Time Required:

5 hours

Here’s How:



  1. Remove vegetable matter, clumps of dirt, or other soiled fibre from the fleece.
  2. Fill a large tub or wash basin with hot water.
  3. Add a mild soap to the hot water, such as dishwashing liquid or liquid detergent (no bleach).
  4. Place the fleece in the hot water.
  5. Allow the fleece to soak for several hours, or overnight.
  6. The lanolins and oils will soak out into the water.
  7. Drain the water and remove the fleece from the wash tub.
  8. Refill the tub with cool water and place the fleece back in to rinse.
  9. If the fleece is especially dirty, the above steps may need to be repeated.
  10. Spin the fleece dry to remove excess water, by using the Spin cycle of your washing machine.
  11. Lay the washed fleece on a flat surface or drying rack to dry.


Tips:



  1. Caution: On Step 10 above – Turn off the water to your washing machine, so that the fleece is not sprayed during the Spin cycle.
  2. Do not agitate the fleece while it is soaking, or you may get felt.
  3. If you are going to dye fleece, it must be clean prior to dyeing. Otherwise, you will be dyeing the lanolin and oils and not the fibre.

  4. How To

    How Long does it take to knit
    How to Make an Alum Mordant
    How to Mordant Cotton and Linen Yarns
    How to Sew Handwoven Fabric
    How to Spin a Cabled Yarn
    How to Make a Tin Mordant
    How to Make a Twisted Fringe
    How to Use a Corker
    How to Wash Fleece
    How to Felt

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How to Use a McMorran Balance: how_use_mcmorran_balance

A McMorran balance is used to determine the yardage of an unknown yarn. The McMorran balance consists of a rectangular box and a balancing arm.

Difficulty Level:

Easy

Time Required:

5 minutes

Here’s How:

     

  1. Place the McMorran balance on a level surface, such as on the edge of a table.
  2. Set the pins of the small balancing arm into the small notches on the top of the box.
  3. Lay a length of yarn in the notch of the balance, allowing the yarn to hang down towards the floor.
  4. Using scissors start to trim the length of yarn, cutting x-about 1/2 inch at a time, until the balancing arm is level.
  5. When the arm is level, remove the length of yarn from the balance.
  6. Measure the length of yarn against a ruler.
  7. Multiply the measurement x 100.
  8. This measurement gives you the number of yards per lb. of yarn (ypp)
  9. e.g. 6 inches x 100 = 600 ypp

Tips:

  • McMorran balances are also available in metric measurements.
  • If you are measuring bumpy, slub or a handspun yarn, the measurement may not be accurate due to inconsistencies in the yarn. 
  • How To

    How Long does it take to knit
    How to Make an Alum Mordant
    How to Mordant Cotton and Linen Yarns
    How to Sew Handwoven Fabric
    How to Spin a Cabled Yarn
    How to Make a Tin Mordant
    How to Make a Twisted Fringe
    How to Use a Corker
    How to Wash Fleece
    How to Felt
    How to Use a McMorran Balance

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